💫 Summary
This video is about the evolution of the Philippine Constitution, specifically focusing on the 1897 Biak-na-Bato Constitution, the 1899 Malolos Constitution, and the 1935 Commonwealth Constitution. The video discusses the key features and influences of each constitution, including their provisions on government structure and individual rights. It also highlights the ongoing struggle for Philippine independence during that time period.
✨ Highlights📊 Transcript
This section introduces the objectives of the chapter and discusses the importance of understanding the past to propose solutions for present-day problems.
Learning objectives include analyzing social, political, economic, and cultural issues in the Philippines through history.
The chapter aims to propose recommendations or solutions based on the understanding of root causes and anticipation of future scenarios.
The first half of the chapter focuses on the evolution of the Philippine Constitution, covering the constitutions of 1897, 1899, and 1935.
This section provides an overview of the evolution of the Philippine Constitution.
The Constitution of the Philippines has been in effect since 1987.
Earlier constitutions attempted by Filipinos include the 1897 Constitution of Biak-na-Bato.
The organs of the government under the Biak-na-Bato Constitution included the Supreme Council and the Assembly of Representatives.
After the revolution, a new constitution was created in Biak-na-Bato, which sought the separation of the Philippines from the Spanish monarchy and the formation of an independent state called the Philippine Republic.
The revolutionaries convened to create a new constitution and elect a new council of government and representatives.
The Biak-na-Bato Constitution was never fully implemented due to the truce signed between the Spanish and Philippine revolutionary army.
The preamble of the Biak-na-Bato Constitution emphasized the desire for Philippine independence and the formation of their own government.
The Malolos Constitution was drafted and promulgated after the defeat of the Spanish by the Americans in the Battle of Manila Bay.
The Philippine Constitution of 1899 was influenced by various countries and prior constitutional projects in the Philippines.
The constitution was titled the Political Constitution of 1899 and written in Spanish.
It had 39 articles divided into 14 titles, with additional provisions and sections.
The constitution drew inspiration from the Spanish Constitution of 1812, as well as the charters of Belgium, Mexico, Brazil, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Guatemala, and the French Constitution of 1793.
Prior constitutional projects in the Philippines, such as the Cartilla and the Sangguniang Hukuman, also influenced the Malolos Constitution.
The section discusses the legal principles underlying the Philippine revolution, including popular sovereignty, natural rights, freedom of belief, separation of church and state, and the form of government.
The Filipino people delegated governmental functions while retaining sovereignty.
Title 4 details the natural rights and popular sovereignty of Filipinos.
Title 3 Article 5 recognizes freedom and equality of beliefs, as well as the separation of church and state.
The form of government is popular, representative, and responsible, with a unicameral legislative body called the Assembly of Representatives.
The section discusses the powers given to the body, including the right of impeachment, and the structure of the executive power in the Malolos Constitution of 1899.
Powers such as the right of impeaching the president, cabinet members, the chief justice of the supreme court, and the solicitor general were given to the body.
A permanent commission of seven elected by the assembly was granted specific powers by the constitution.
Executive power was vested in the president, who was elected by a constituent assembly of the assembly of representatives and special representatives.
The 1899 Malolos Constitution was never enforced due to the ongoing war and the Philippines becoming a territory of the United States.
The video discusses the evolution of the Philippine Constitution, including the Philippine Autonomy Act of 1916 and the passage of the Tydings-McDuffie Act in 1934.
The Philippine Autonomy Act of 1916, also known as the Jones Law, modified the structure of the Philippine government by removing the Philippine Commission and establishing a senate elected by Filipino voters.
The Tydings-McDuffie Act, passed in 1934, provided authority and defined mechanisms for the establishment of a formal constitution through a constitutional convention.
The members of the constitutional convention were elected, with Claro M. Recto unanimously elected as the president.
The section discusses the creation of the Commonwealth of the Philippines and the amendments made to its constitution.
The constitution established the Commonwealth of the Philippines as a transitional administration.
Initially, it provided for a unicameral national assembly with a six-year term for the president and vice president.
In 1940, the constitution was amended to create a bicameral congress and limited the term of the president and vice president to four years.
The dominant influence on the constitution was American, but it also had traces of the Malolos constitution, German, Spanish, Mexican, South American, and English constitutions.
00:01hello students
00:03today we will be presenting part one of
00:06chapter four
00:08social political economic and cultural
00:12in philippine history
00:18learning objectives
00:22to analyze social political
00:25economic and cultural issues in the
00:29using the lens of history
00:32to recognize that the problems of today
00:35are consequences
00:36of decisions and events that happened in
00:39the past
00:42to understand several enduring issues in
00:45philippine society
00:46through history to propose
00:50recommendations or solutions
00:53to present-day problems based on the
00:55understanding of the past
00:58and anticipation of the future through
01:00the study of
01:01history introduction
01:07this chapter is dedicated to enduring
01:09issues in philippine society
01:12which history could lend a hand in
01:15and hopefully proposing solutions
01:20these topics include the mandated
01:22discussion of the philippine
01:25policies on agrarian reform
01:28and taxation so um
01:32topic not indeed a chapter for ieee
02:06us it is hoped that these discussions
02:10will help
02:10us propose recommendations or solutions
02:14to present-day problems
02:16based on our understanding of root
02:19and how we anticipate future scenarios
02:22in the philippine
04:15is the evolution of the philippine
04:18and we will be presenting this into two
04:22so uh we will be studying
04:26for today the first half
04:29which is 1897 constitution of
04:33nabato 1899 malolo's constitution
04:38and then 1935 the common commonwealth
04:47evolution of the philippine constitution
04:52so bhagwanath
05:03the constitution is defined as a set of
05:05fundamental principles or established
05:09according to which a state or other
05:11organization is governed
05:44it is presented in two parts it is
05:46defined in two parts
05:47una it is a set of fundamental
05:51principles is
06:32in our situation
06:39and then the second part
07:23the word itself means to be a part of a
07:27from the word constitute the coming
07:31together of distinct entities into one
07:34with the same principles and ideals
07:38these principles define the nature and
07:41of government
08:06the constitution of the philippines the
08:08supreme law of the republic of the
08:12has been in effect since 1987.
08:17there were only three other
08:19constitutions that have
08:21effectively governed the country
08:24the 1935 commonwealth constitution
08:27the 1973 constitution
08:30and the 1986 freedom constitution
08:36however there were earlier constitutions
08:40attempted by filipinos in the struggle
08:42to break free
08:44from the colonial yoke
08:501897 constitution of
08:58the constitution of biak-nabato was the
09:01provisionary constitution of the
09:02philippine republic
09:04during the philippine revolution and was
09:08promulgated by the philippine
09:09revolutionary government
09:11on november 1 1897.
10:05the constitution borrowed from cuba was
10:08written by isabello artacho
10:11and felix ferrer in spanish
10:15and later on translated into tagalog
10:43the organs of the government under the
10:45constitution were
10:48the supreme council which was vested
10:50with the power of the republic
10:52headed by the president and four
10:54department secretaries
10:57the interior foreign affairs
11:00treasury and war
11:10nothing executive branch
11:25so the interior foreign affairs treasury
11:28war number two the consejo supremo de
11:34e justicia supreme council of grace and
11:40which was given the authority to make
11:44and affirm or disprove the sentences
11:47rendered by other courts and to dictate
11:50rules for the administration of
11:52justice so it
12:19assembly of representatives which was to
12:22convened after the revolution to create
12:25a new constitution
12:27and to elect a new council of government
12:30and representatives of the people
12:39this is the legislative legislative
12:48the constitution of bianca battle was
12:50never fully implemented
12:52since a truce the fact of the yagna
12:55battle was signed between the spanish
12:58and the philippine revolutionary army
13:09between the spanish government and the
13:13revolutionary army assumed
13:38so this is the preamble of the b nabato
13:43the separation of the philippines from
13:45the spanish monarchy and their formation
13:48into an independent state with its own
13:51called the philippine republic has been
13:54the end sought by the revolution
13:56in the existing war began on the 24th
13:59of august 1896. and therefore
14:03in its name and by the power delegated
14:05by the filipino people
14:08interpreting faithfully their desires
14:10and ambitions
14:11we the representatives of the revolution
14:15in a meeting at biyak nabato november 1
14:20unanimously adopted the following
14:23for the constitution of the state 1899
14:31malolos constitution
14:36after the signing of the truce the
14:39filipino revolutionary leaders
14:41accepted the payment from spain and went
14:44to exile
14:45in hong kong
14:48upon the defeat of the spanish to the
14:50americans in the battle of manila bay on
14:53may 1
14:531898 the united states navy
14:58transported aguinaldo back to the
15:08filipino revolutionary leaders
15:57the newly reformed philippi philippine
16:00revolutionary forces
16:02reverted to the control of aguinaldo
16:05in the philippine declaration of
16:07independence was issued on june 12
16:101898 together with several decrees that
16:14formed the first
16:16philippine republic sona ibalik
17:03malolos congress was elected
17:06which selected the commission to draw up
17:09a draft constitution on september 17
17:121898 which which was composed of wealthy
17:47the document they came up with approved
17:49by the congress on november 29
17:521898 and promulgated by
17:55aguinaldo on january 21 1899
17:59was titled the political constitution of
18:021899 and written in spanish
18:07the constitution has 39 articles
18:10divided into 14 titles with
18:14eight articles of transitory provisions
18:17in the final additional article
18:39a 1987 constitution
18:4218 articles
19:09it has 22 sections
19:14section 20 i know no person will be
19:18imprisoned because of death
19:47to our constitution today
19:52the document was spattered after the
19:54spanish constitution of 1812
19:57with influences from the charters of
20:00mexico brazil nicaragua costa rica
20:05guatemala in the french constitution of
20:12so is a spanish constitution of 1812
20:40belgium mexico
20:44brazil nicaragua costa rica
20:47guatemala and the french constitution of
20:55spanish constitution
21:08according to philippecal they don't mean
21:10author of the constitution
21:13these countries were studied because
21:15they shared similar social
21:16political ethnological and governance
21:20conditions with the philippines
21:29in terms of their social political
21:34ethnological and governance conditions
21:40prior constitutional projects in the
21:42philippines also influenced the malolos
21:46namely the cartila and the sangguniang
21:51the charter of laws and morals of the
21:53katipunan written by
21:54emilio hasinto in 1896
22:06constitution of 1897 planned by isabella
22:18of the philippine republic of
22:221898 the provincial constitution
22:26of mariano porse in 1898 that followed
22:29the spanish constitutions
22:32and the autonomy projects of paterno
22:35in 1898
23:12of the political constitution of 1899.
23:16we the representatives of the filipino
23:20lawfully convinced in order to establish
23:24justice provide for common defense
23:27promote the general welfare and ensure
23:30the benefits of liberty
23:32imploring the aid of the sovereign
23:34legislator of the universe
23:37for the attainment of this ends have
23:40deserved and sanctioned the following
23:48as a direct challenge to colonial
23:50authorities of the spanish empire
23:53the sovereignty was retroverted to the
23:56a legal principle underlying the
24:00revolution some pinaka dahilan
24:16filipino the people delegated
24:20governmental functions to civil servants
24:23while they retained actual sovereignty
24:5527 articles of title 4 detail the
24:58natural rights and popular sovereignty
25:00of filipinos
25:01the enumeration of which does not imply
25:04the prohibition
25:05of any other rights not expressly
25:12title four young 27
25:53title 3 article 5 also declares that the
25:57recognizes the freedom and equality of
25:59all beliefs
26:01as well as the separation of church and
26:04state so nandunde young
26:08separation of church and state
26:20freedom of uh religion freedom of
26:28these are direct reactions to features
26:30of the spanish government in the
26:33where the friars were dominant agents of
26:36the state
27:10freedom and equality of all
27:13beliefs separation of church
27:17and state now
27:44the form of government according to
27:45title 2 article 4
27:48is to be popular ebik sabine
27:55representative alternative and
27:59and shall exercise three distinct powers
29:00the legislative power was vested in a
29:02unicameral body called the assembly of
29:05representatives members of which
29:08are elected for terms of 4 years
29:12so every 4 years
29:18tenure of office
29:22assembly of representatives or
29:33secretaries of the government were given
29:35seats in the assembly
29:37which meet annually for a period of at
29:41three months
29:44bills could be introduced either by the
29:46president or or by a member of the
29:49assembly okay so
30:16some powers not legislative in nature
30:19were also given to the body
30:21such as the right of impeaching the
30:24cabinet members the chief justice of the
30:27supreme court
30:28and the solicitor general
31:00a permanent commission of seven elected
31:03by the assembly
31:05and granted specific powers by the
31:07constitution was to sit
31:08during the intervals between sessions
31:12of the assembly executive power was
31:16vested in the president
31:18and elected by a constituent assembly of
31:20the assembly
31:22of representatives and special
31:30the president will serve a term of four
31:32years without
31:42uh presidente
31:46according to the malolos constitution
31:53constituent assembly assembly of
32:22so it is a election by constituent
32:26of the assembly of representatives
32:30there was no vice president and in case
32:32of a vacancy
32:34a president was to be selected by the
32:37assembly so manyari
32:59the 1899 malolos constitution was never
33:02enforced due to the ongoing war
33:06the philippines was effectively a
33:08territory of the united states
33:10upon the signing of the treaty of paris
33:12between spain and the united states
33:15transferring sovereignty of the
33:17philippines on december 10
33:2018 98.
33:44and that happened in december 10 18 98
33:521935 the commonwealth constitution
33:59it is worth mentioning that after the
34:02treaty of paris
34:04the philippines was subject to the power
34:06of the united states of america
34:08effectively the new colonizers of the
34:13from 1898 to 1901 the philippines would
34:17be placed under a military government
34:19until a civil government
34:21would be put into place
34:25two acts of the united states congress
34:28were passed that may be considered to
34:30qualities of constitutionality
34:34so exclaimed
34:381898 to 1901
34:43military government
35:17military government okay martial rule
35:21i'm not saying martial law i'm saying
35:24martial rule
35:25military government so two acts of the
35:28united states congress
35:30were passed that may be considered to
35:32have qualities of constitutionality
35:36first was the philippine organic act of
35:40the first organic law of the philippine
35:42islands that provided
35:44for the creation of a popularly elected
35:47assembly so
36:26act specified that legislative power
36:28would be
36:29vested in a bicameral legislature
36:32composed of the philippine commission as
36:35the upper house and the philippine
36:36assembly as the lower
36:53this is the lower house or the house of
36:57manga congress congressman congresswoman
37:02key provisions of the act included a
37:05bill of rights for
37:06filipinos and the appointment of two
37:09non-voting filipino resident
37:12of the philippines as representative to
37:14the united states
37:16house of representatives
37:38non-voting filipino resident
37:43of the philippines tapos uh nagre
37:48estados unidos
37:56the second act that functioned as a
37:58constitution was the philippine autonomy
38:00act of 1916
38:03commonly referred to as jones law
38:06which modified the structure of the
38:08philippine government through the
38:09removal of the
38:11philippine commission so penalty
38:16senate that served as the upper house
38:20and its members elected by the filipino
38:24the first truly elected national
38:48it was also this act that explicitly
38:51declared the purpose of the united
38:54to end their sovereignty over the
38:56philippines and recognize philippine
39:00as soon as a stable government can be
39:03established so this is explicitly
39:24independence as soon as a stable
39:28can be established
39:41in 1932 with the efforts of the filipino
39:43independence mission
39:45led by serious osmena and manuel rojas
39:50the united states congress passed the
39:53house cutting act with the promise of
39:57granting filipinos
40:02the bill was opposed by then senate
40:04president manuel l cason
40:07and consequently rejected by the
40:14by 1934 another law the tithing's
40:18mcduffie act
40:19also known as the philippine
40:20independence act
40:22was passed by the united states congress
40:25that provided
40:26authority and defined mechanism for the
40:29establishment of a formal constitution
40:32by a constitution constitutional
40:45the members of the convention were
40:47elected and held their first meeting on
40:5013 1934 with claro m
40:54recto unanimously elected as
40:57a president
41:01the constitution was crafted to meet the
41:03approval of the united states government
41:06and to ensure that the united states
41:08would live up to its promise to grant
41:10independence to the philippines
41:18primary source preamble of the 1935
41:21commonwealth masai natin
41:25the filipino people imploring the aid of
41:28divine providence
41:30in order to establish a government that
41:32shall embody their ideals
41:34conserve and develop the patrimony of
41:37the nation
41:38promote the general welfare and secure
41:41to themselves and their posterity
41:44the blessings of independence under a
41:47of justice liberty and democracy
41:51do ordain and promulgate this
41:59the constitution created the
42:01commonwealth of the philippines
42:04an administrative body that governed the
42:06philippines from 1935
42:08to 1946.
42:13it is a transitional administration to
42:16prepare the country toward
42:18its full achievement of independence
42:23it originally provided for a unicameral
42:26national assembly
42:28with the president and vice president
42:30elected to a six-year term
42:32without a re-election
42:40commonwealth constitution
43:02not in the national assembly
43:10representative islam
43:13with the president and vice president
43:15elected to a six-year term
43:18without a re-election so
43:29it was amended in 1940 to have a
43:32bicameral congress
43:34composed of a senate in a house of
43:38so no 1940 naging baika mira naito
43:41nagar unang upper house lower
43:44lower house as well as the creation of
43:48independent electoral commission
43:56and limited the term of office of the
43:59president and vice president
44:01to four years
44:21to male citizens of the philippines who
44:24are 21
44:25years of age or
44:28over and are able to read and write this
44:31was later on extended to women
44:34within two years after the adoption of
44:36the constitution
44:39so um
44:44and then um within two years
44:5221 years of age and
44:55over while the dominant influence in the
44:59constitution was american
45:02it also bears traces of the malolos
45:06the german spanish and mexican
45:11constitutions of several south american
45:14and the unwritten english constitutions
45:31constitution so merong galing nang
45:34malolo's constitution
45:36tapos merunding from the german
45:39spanish mexicans constitution
45:43pero the dominant influence of course
45:54the draft of the constitution was
45:56approved by the constitutional
45:59on february 8 1935
46:03and ratified by then u.s president
46:06franklin b roosevelt on march 25
46:16elections were held in september 1935
46:20and manuel l kesson was elected
46:23of the commonwealth
46:27the commonwealth was briefly interrupted
46:29by the events of the world war
46:31ii with the japanese occupying the
46:37afterward upon liberation the
46:40philippines was declared an independent
46:42republic on july 4
46:49and that wraps up our study of
46:53the evolution of the philippine
46:56so uh next week
47:01in a young second half of the evolution
47:04of the philippine constitution
47:081973 uh
47:10constitution 1986
47:14freedom constitution and then 1987
47:19constitution tapos young
47:20amendments or young attempts
47:24to uh to change
47:28uh the 1987 uh constitution so yana
47:32pagar ala natin
47:34uh next next in our next lesson
47:39i hope you learned a lot in our
47:42presentation for today
47:44thank you for joining me may you have a
47:48good day
47:49and god bless
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FAQs about This YouTube Video

1. What are the key features of the 1897 Biak-na-Bato Constitution?

The 1897 Biak-na-Bato Constitution introduced the concept of a revolutionary government in the Philippines. It established a tripartite government composed of the Supreme Council, the Council of the Cabinet, and the Assembly. The constitution also included provisions for the protection of individual rights and liberties.

2. How did the 1899 Malolos Constitution influence the Philippine government structure?

The 1899 Malolos Constitution established the First Philippine Republic and introduced a presidential form of government. It also defined the powers of the president, the legislative assembly, and the judiciary. Additionally, it emphasized the importance of separation of powers to prevent abuse of authority.

3. What were the provisions on individual rights in the 1935 Commonwealth Constitution?

The 1935 Commonwealth Constitution guaranteed fundamental freedoms such as freedom of speech, assembly, and religion. It also protected the right to due process and equal protection under the law. Moreover, it laid the groundwork for the protection of labor rights and the promotion of social justice.

4. How did the 1897 Biak-na-Bato Constitution influence the ongoing struggle for Philippine independence?

The 1897 Biak-na-Bato Constitution marked a significant step in the Philippine struggle for independence by establishing a framework for self-governance. It demonstrated the aspirations of Filipinos for autonomy and freedom from colonial rule, laying the groundwork for future efforts towards sovereignty.

5. What were the main influences of the 1899 Malolos Constitution on the Philippine government?

The 1899 Malolos Constitution was influenced by both the American and French models of government, incorporating elements of both systems. It reflected the desire for a republican form of government while also drawing inspiration from the principles of democracy and constitutionalism.

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