💫 Summary
This video explores the family, childhood, and early education of Jose Rizal, the national hero of the Philippines, highlighting his upbringing, parental influences, and the cultural context of his time. It emphasizes the importance of viewing Rizal as a normal child rather than a superhero and underscores the role of nurturing and education in shaping his character and achievements.
✨ Highlights📊 Transcript
The young Rizal was believed to have written a complex poem at the age of 8, but historians and scholars doubt its authenticity.
Historians and scholars doubt that the young Rizal wrote the poem "To My Children" at age 8.
The use of the letter "k" in the poem was not common in 1869, and Rizal's childhood used "c" instead of "k".
The word "freedom" in the poem was not widely used in the 19th century.
There are questions about how an 8-year-old could write such a complex poem.
Rizal's childhood and birth details
Rizal was born on June 19, 1861, in Calamba, Laguna.
His mother almost died during the birthing process due to his big head.
He was named Jose Protacio after two saints, one of whom was his mother's favorite saint.
During his baptism ceremony, the parish priest noticed his big head.
Rizal's family combined their surnames to become Rizal Mercado to avoid confusion in their commercial affairs, and it was common practice at the time to use four surnames.
Rizal's original choice of surname was Ricial, which was denied and they continued to use Mercado.
The combination of Rizal and Mercado was used to avoid confusion in their commercial affairs.
The y in Spanish names indicates the conjunction "and" to separate the patriarch surname from the matriarch surname.
It was common practice at the time to use four surnames, each of the old and new family names of both the mother and the father.
Francisco Mercado, Rizal's father, was a respected man in Calamba and a successful farmer and trader.
Francisco inherited wealth from his father and grandfather who were both gobernadorcillos of Binan.
He was well-respected in Calamba and was even made the head of town.
Rizal greatly admired his father and made a clay bust and a life-size sculpture of him, and named his son after him.
The Rizal family held positions in the government and had vast lands, allowing them to provide education for their children and pursue literature and music.
The Rizal family held the highest position a Filipino could have at that time, gobernadorcillo.
They had vast lands that could be leased and were exempted from paying taxes.
Teodora, the mother of Jose Rizal, had a special inclination toward literature and music and was educated at Colegio de Santa Rosa.
Teodora taught her children how to read, write, and pray, as well as values such as discipline, justice, and compassion.
Teodora's love for literature and the arts influenced her children, who became renowned writers and artists.
Rizal's early education involved private tutors, including Leon Monroy and Maestro Justiniano Aquino Cruz, and he faced challenges with his classmates.
Rizal's parents hired private tutors to prepare him for formal education.
Leon Monroy taught Rizal Spanish and Latin before his death.
Rizal continued studying Spanish and Latin in Binan with his older brother Paciano.
Rizal faced mockery and a fight with a classmate named Pedro.
Rizal's view of education was greatly influenced by his experiences in Binan, and he believed that education should be a safe haven for young minds to explore and grow.
Rizal reflected on his state and saw education as an investment for a brighter future.
He believed that schools should be a safe haven and a playground of the mind.
Rizal's parents decided that he should stay in Calamba and later go to Manila, while his uncle returned from Europe.
Teodora, Rizal's mother, was accused of trying to poison his brother's wife and was punished by being made to walk 50 kilometers from Calamba to Santa Cruz.
Teodora was arrested and charged for the alleged poisoning.
Rizal became aware of the cruelty of the world due to the unjust treatment of his mother.
The video ends with a reflection on the toxic trait of Filipino families comparing their children to others and the importance of nurturing children's unique strengths.
00:00Hello, I'm Humi.
00:02In this video, we will talk about the family, youth,
00:05and the early education of the national hero.
00:08We will examine the various people and events
00:11that affected and shaped the life of young Rizal.
00:15♪ Intro ♪
00:19When we say young Rizal, what first comes to your mind?
00:24If I would take a guess, what you are probably thinking is
00:26that when Rizal was young, he was already gifted with writing skills.
00:30And the proof of that is this poem:
00:32"To My Children."
00:34Even though he is only 8 years old,
00:35he already wrote a masterpiece that expresses the love of one's native language
00:41and the importance of freedom.
00:43If you are not familiar with the title,
00:45maybe you are more familiar with the highly quoted line of the poem:
00:49"He who does not love his word, is
00:51more than an animal and a fish."
00:54Or if it's not that exact line,
00:56you've probably encountered different versions of the poem
00:59with different variations.
01:01But did you know that the young Rizal was not the one who wrote this poem?
01:05To clarify, let's listen to historian Ambeth Ocampo
01:09in an episode of "The Howie Severino Podcast".
01:48Other historians and scholars also doubt whether the young Rizal
01:52wrote the poem.
01:53According to them, the eight-year-old child was just learning to read,
01:58so how did it happen that at the age of 8 he was able to write a
02:01very complex poem with a measure and match?
02:05the letter "k" was not widely used in 1869.
02:10In Rizal's childhood, they spelled words with a "c" rather than "k".
02:15And the poem is full of "k".
02:18The two here , we will see in freedom.
02:21And the word "freedom" was not widely used in the 19th century.
02:26As a matter of fact, thanks to the letters,
02:28we will know that Rizal only encountered
02:31the word "freedom" in the 21 years old.
02:35And one more thing, <i><font color="#e3ffae">(julet-julet)</font></i>. Do
02:36you think the young Rizal is aware of the colonial condition of the Philippines
02:40in at such a young age to ask for freedom? Is
02:44he really that smart?
02:46or are we just overestimating his abilities? That's
02:50not the only lie about the young Rizal.
02:53You may have heard the story
02:55that the young Rizal is said to be the invented champurado. This is
02:58how the story goes.
03:00Rizal's favorite breakfast was dry and a cup of rice,
03:04with hot chocolate.
03:07One day, while the young Rizal was having breakfast,
03:09he accidentally spilled the hot chocolate
03:12on his plate with rice and dry.
03:15His sisters saw this and ran over Rizal.
03:18"What the hell is that!? You're not even paying attention!"
03:20The young Rizal answered: "Shunga, I meant it!" Did
03:23you not know that when rice and chocolate are combined,
03:27it can form a champurado.
03:29The truth in this story is that one of Rizal's favorite breakfast foods
03:33is tuyo.
03:34But there is no primary source that supports that he invented
03:39Another story full of lies, the story of "Sinelas."
03:43This is how the story progresses.
03:45The young Rizal was playing by the river bank
03:47when one of his slippers suddenly fell and was swept away by the wave.
03:51Since he couldn't reach the waved slipper,
03:53and the other one he was wearing was useless,
03:56he decided to throw his other slipper.
03:59His reason is,
04:00so that in case someone catches it, at least what they get
04:04is a pair that can be used.
04:06The story is selfless,
04:08showing his unique intellect and broad perspective,
04:13but he is also not true.
04:15These stories depict the young Rizal as a superhero. That there is
04:20too much intelligence, kindness, and love for the people. It is the
04:24case that these stories are just invented,
04:27and do not reflect Rizal's real experience in his youth.
04:32We keep forgetting that young Rizal was still a child.
04:36He is no different from those who play, fight, have problems, cry,
04:41get hurt, get tired, fear, and fall in love.
04:45We have lost sight of the real Rizal and his formative years.
04:49Therefore, we need to start correcting these inaccuracies
04:52and view Rizal as a normal child, not as a superhero.
04:59If we talk about the life of Jose Rizal,
05:01or his full name
05:03"Jose Protacio Rizal Mercado y Alonso Realonda",
05:06we have to start from the very beginning.
05:09From his birth.
05:11On June 19, 1861, Jose was born in a lakeshore town in Calamba, Laguna.
05:16The birth occurred between 11 pm and 12 am,
05:19and a few days before the full moon.
05:22The birthing process that happened was not easy.
05:25Jose's mother almost died because the hero had a big head.
05:30But fortunately, the labor was successful.
05:33Jose and his mother both survived.
05:37Three days later, Jose Protacio was baptized in a Catholic Church
05:41by the parish priest Father Rufino Collantes.
05:45The baby was named Jose Protacio after the two saints.
05:50So he was named Jose
05:51because his mother was a devotee of the Christian Saint
05:54San Jose or Saint Joseph.
05:56Protacio came from St. Gervacio Protacio,
05:59whose feast is cine-celebrated every June 19th,
06:02when Rizal was born.
06:04There are references that spell the name Protasio with an "s",
06:08but here, for consistency, we will use Protacio with a "c".
06:13While the baptism ceremony was going on, the parish priest noticed the big head
06:17of Jose Rizal.
06:18He was amazed by this and advised Jose's family members
06:22to take care of the child.
06:23Maybe the parish priest thinks that because the boy's head is big,
06:27his brain is also big.
06:28Because of that size, he believed that the boy was a smart man
06:32and someday he would become a great man.
06:36Let's go to the name of Jose Rizal because you might have noticed that
06:39he seems to be too long.
06:41ike, do his parents hate him?
06:43Well, nothing.
06:44But if you noticed, you're right, he's really tall.
06:48And the reason for this is because it is a combination
06:50of different last names of his family throughout the years.
06:54Let's try to break down his long name.
06:57Jose Protacio, as I said, comes from two saints:
07:00San Jose and Gervacio Protacio.
07:03Mercado, on the other hand, comes from his Chinese ancestor, Domingo Lam-co.
07:07This is the context of that.
07:09Lam-co is a Chinese, and when he was alive
07:12racism was severe in the Philippines.
07:15The Spanish authorities are hostile to their race.
07:18To avoid the anti-Chinese hostility of the Spaniards towards him
07:22and his family,
07:23Lam-co changed their last name to Spanish.
07:27And he chose the last name Mercado,
07:30which means "market",
07:31which is ideal because his race is merchants.
07:35Rizal was adapted by the Mercados in the *1840's due to the Claveria decree.
07:40Context again.
07:42In the 1840s, Governor-General Narciso Claveria
07:45issued that every Filipino must have a surname,
07:50a step to improve census data and tax collection.
07:54Each province was then given a list
07:56from which families could purchase their surname.
08:00Those surnames are from this book:
08:02the "Catalogo alfabetico de apellidos"
08:05or "Alphabetical Catalog of Surnames in English."
08:08The Mercados of Calamba chose the unlisted name Rizal.
08:13Their original choice was Ricial,
08:15which means "the green of young growth" or "green fields",
08:18to be connected to their livelihood.
08:20His case was denied for some reason.
08:23But even though they chose Rizal,
08:25they continued to use the surname Mercado.
08:28Because the surname Rizal caused confusion in the family's commercial affairs.
08:33They are known as Mercados ng Calamba.
08:36If they use Rizal, people will not recognize them.
08:41So what Rizal's father did was combine the two surnames
08:44to become Rizal Mercado.
08:46But he only uses the surname Mercado more often,
08:49because they are better known there.
08:52The y in Spanish names indicates the conjunction "and",
08:56and he is here to separate the patriarch surname from the matriarch surname.
09:00And yes, during this time
09:01the father's family name really comes first than the mother's family name.
09:06Alonso is the old surname of his Mother's family.
09:10Whereas Realonda is the inadapted of the Alonsos due to the Claveria decree.
09:15And like the Mercados,
09:16even though they have adapted Realonda, they still continue to use Alonso.
09:21This seemed to be a common practice, so that each family ended up
09:25with four surnames:
09:26each of the old and new family names of both the mother and the father.
09:31If you are a bit long, or a bit confused
09:34by Jose Rizal's four last names,
09:36we can call him by one of his nicknames:
09:40Why "Pepe", isn't it a bit far?
09:42According to the book "In Excelsis" by Felice Prudente Santa Maria,
09:47the letters "P.P." It is said that it is always placed
09:49after the name of Saint San Jose.
09:52In Latin, P.P. stands for pater putativus,
09:55which means putative father.
09:57Because isn't it commonly accepted that the legal father of Jesus or Jesus Christ
10:01is this San Jose or St. Joseph.
10:04In spanish, the letter "P" is pronounced "Peh."
10:08which led to call Saint Joseph Pepe.
10:11And because Rizal was named after the saint, people also called him Pepe.
10:18Jose Rizal or Pepe was the seventh child of the Mercado family,
10:22a wealthy family that lived on a Dominican-owned tenant land
10:26in Calamba, Laguna.
10:27His father is Francisco
10:30and his mother is Teodora.
10:32The couple had eleven children:
10:36the eldest Saturnina,
10:38the eldest son Paciano,
10:42Lucia, Maria, Jose, Concepcion,
10:46Josefa, Trinidad,
10:48and the youngest Soledad.
10:50We'll just focus on Pepe's parents,
10:53but if you're interested in knowing the details of the siblings,
10:56I've included them in the video anyway.
10:58You can pause or take a screenshot if you want.
11:00If you are not interested, just skip it.
11:56Francisco Mercado Rizal was more than just the father of Jose Rizal;
12:00he was a man of admirable qualities.
12:03 Francisco Mercado Rizal was born
12:05on May 11, 1818 in Binan Laguna
12:08and studied Latin and Philosophy at the College of San Jose in Manila.
12:13Young Francisco lost his father early.
12:16When both of his parents died,
12:19he moved to Calamba to farm in a hacienda
12:22owned by a Dominican.
12:24But let me just clarify that this Francisco is not suffering.
12:28In fact,
12:29Francisco's father, Juan Mercado,
12:31was the gobernadorcillo of Binan three times.
12:34In 1808, 1813, and 1823.
12:38And his grandfather, also named Francisco Mercado, also
12:42became gobernadorcillo in 1783,
12:45and incidentally owned the largest herd of carabaos in all of Binan.
12:50Clearly, Francisco may have inherited something when
12:53his parents died.
12:55But because of his hard work, he made their money grow even more
12:59by engaging in farming and trading.
13:02In Calamba, Francisco is well-respected.
13:05In fact, the people there even call him Don Francisco or Don Kiko.
13:10"Don" is an honorific prefix used to show respect and courtesy.
13:14The characteristics of Don Kiko are that he rarely speaks but does a lot, has a
13:19strong body, and has a good mind.
13:23Because of these qualities,
13:24the people of Calamba made him "cabeza de barangay" or the head of town.
13:29This Don Kiko is not only loved by other people in Calamba,
13:33his family also loves him.
13:36When we study Pepe, we can see how much
13:40he admires his father.
13:43In his student memoirs, Pepe called Don Kiko
13:46as "a model of fathers" or "ideal father" There are
13:49works that Pepe did for his father that can show
13:53this admiration that I am talking about.
13:55In 1881, he made a clay bust of his father,
13:59and six years later, he even spent time making
14:02Don Kiko a life-size sculpture.
14:05According to other sources,
14:06Pepe named his son who died early
14:09after Josephine Bracken Francisco.
14:11I'm not sure about this part because some sources say that
14:15they named their son Peter.
14:17But even if that is not true,
14:18 Pepe's love for his father is still very true.
14:21Before he was shot, he wrote to his brother Paciano.
14:25He said:
14:38He also wrote Don Kiko.
14:40He said to his father:
15:15We will see that Pepe has a good relationship with his father,
15:18and the same with his mother.
15:20Maybe even worse. It is said
15:22in Jose's written memoir where he described his mother:
15:33Teodora Alonso Realonda y Quintos, the hero's mother,
15:37was born on November 8, 1826 in Manila.
15:41Before Donya Teodora married her husband Don Kiko,
15:45she's already living a comfortable life.
15:48They are rich.
15:49Because Donya Teodora's family belongs to a long line
15:53of principalia class.
15:55When we say principalia class,
15:56they were the ruling and educated upper class in the towns
16:00during the Spanish occupation.
16:02The original principalia are the former datus.
16:05In the 16th century, these datus collaborated with the Spanish
16:10to conquer their territories.
16:13In return,
16:14the datus will be rewarded with government positions,
16:18such as being gobernadorcillo and cabezas de barangay.
16:21The status principalia is hereditary, and it includes a position in the government.
16:27So even in the 19th century,
16:29the family of Dona Teodora was still the gobernadorcillo of their town,
16:34the highest position that a Filipino could hold at that time.
16:39His grandfather, Cipriano Alonso,
16:41was the gobernadorcillo of Binan in 1790 and 1802.
16:45His father, Lorenzo Alberto Alonso,
16:48held this position in 1844.
16:51In addition to the privilege of having a position in the government,
16:55the principalia had holding vast lands that can be leased
16:59and they are exempted from paying taxes.
17:02Because the family had the means,
17:04they were able to study their daughter Teodora at the Colegio de Santa Rosa.
17:09In that college, she displayed a special inclination
17:12toward literature and music.
17:14And her education and refined culture set her apart from most women of her time.
17:20Her characteristics are this:
17:22She is a wonderful woman, eloquent if she acts,
17:26talented in literature, business,
17:28and she has the similar stability of a Spartan woman.
17:33According to his son Jose Rizal,
17:40Teodora became the first teacher of the Rizal siblings.
17:44He taught his children how to read, write, and pray.
17:48She also taught them values ​​such as discipline, justice, and compassion,
17:53and most importantly, to treat Indians as *equals.
17:56Teodora also acted as Rizal's reading teacher and critic,
18:00and together they would read books in their home library.
18:04Her love for literature and the arts would be passed on to her children,
18:08who would become renowned writers and artists in their own right.
18:12There are many stories about Teodora that you will find amazing,
18:17but I think the most amazing thing she did happened
18:20before she died.
18:21After the Americans declared
18:23that the national hero of the Philippines was Jose Rizal,
18:26they offered Teodora a life pension.
18:29What did Teodora do?
18:31He rejected it.
18:32She said,
19:16Except for Donya Teodora, this Pepe also received
19:19guidance and instructions from his three uncles on the mother's side.
19:23Tiyo Jose Alberto, Tiyo Gregorio, and Tiyo Manuel are there.
19:28Each of them played a unique role in shaping Rizal's character and skills.
19:32Let's start with Uncle Jose Alberto.
19:34Uncle Jose, a talented artist, nurtured the young Rizal
19:38to appreciate the beauty of nature. He
19:43also taught him different forms of art,
19:45such as painting, drawing and sculpture.
19:49Next was Uncle Gregorio.
19:51He was a learned scholar,
19:53who instilled in young Rizal to love education.
19:57He emphasized its importance and the value of hard work.
20:01It was also Tiyo Gregorio who encouraged Rizal
20:03to be a critical thinker and should know how to observe
20:07his environment. It is said that
20:08this will help Pepe expand his curiosity and knowledge.
20:14Under his guidance, the young Rizal liked reading even more.
20:19The last one is Tiyo Manuel.
20:21This Uncle Manuel is a little worried about his nephew's physical development.
20:25So he taught him various athletic skills.
20:29There is swimming, fencing, wrestling, and various martial arts.
20:34At that time, this Pepe was short, weak, small, and hurt,
20:38but because of his guides, he helped to develop proficiency in these areas.
20:43Since young Rizal was growing up,
20:45his parents decided to have private tutors
20:50to prepare him for his formal education.
20:53One of his friends was Leon Monroy, a former classmate of his father.
20:58This Leon Monroy lived with Rizal's family and taught Pepe
21:02Spanish and Latin.
21:04Unfortunately, after five months this tutor died.
21:08And I just want to clarify, before you get suspicious,
21:11Rizal had nothing to do with his death. Leon Monroy has been
21:14sick for a long time .
21:17After Monroy's death, Don Kiko sent his son
21:21to Binan to continue studying Spanish and Latin.
21:25Pepe is with his older brother Paciano.
21:27Pepe and Paciano lived in their uncle's house.
21:31Paciano, because he was much older,
21:34acted as a father figure to young Rizal while studying in Binan.
21:39His teacher in Binan was Maestro Justiniano Aquino Cruz,
21:44whom Rizal described as a tall, thin man with a long neck and a sharp nose.
21:48 Maestro Justiniano is a terror teacher but he is smart.
21:52He knew Latin and Spanish grammar by heart.
21:56Pepe's first day at school was not easy. As
21:59soon as he entered the classroom, his teacher immediately asked him.
22:03"Do you speak Spanish?"
22:05"A little, sir."
22:06"Do you know Latin?"
22:07"A little, sir,"
22:09Because of these answers, Pepe was laughed at.
22:12He was mocked by the teacher's son named Pedro,
22:15whom Rizal described as the worst kid in the class.
22:19And because of this mockery, they started fighting.
22:23Pedro is taller than Rizal,
22:25so he probably thinks that he can easily defeat the young Rizal.
22:29But, because this Pepe knows how to do martial arts,
22:32thanks to Uncle Manuel, he
22:34defeated him.
22:35When he released Peter, he left him mortified.
22:39Pedro said, "Rematch!"
22:41Jose refused.
22:43Because at that time their teacher was already awake
22:45and he was afraid that he might receive a punishment.
22:48Thanks to this match, Pepe made a name for himself.
22:53So after class, a kid challenged him.
22:57The boy who challenged is Andres Salandanan and they are said to be arm in arm.
23:01Case at this time, fate is no longer with Rizal.
23:05He lost and almost crashed.
23:17He is called names, teased,
23:19and given nicknames like Calambeno.
23:22But he doesn't feel bad about it.
23:25Because those who tempt him are considered his
23:28best friends. Being
23:30so wise, he kept forgetting the wrongdoings
23:33they were doing.
23:35If he doesn't mini-mind what he receives from his classmates, the
23:38opposite is true when it comes to his teacher.
23:52Rizal said in his student memoir:
24:30 Rizal's studies
24:33in Binan had a great influence on his view of education.
24:35When young Rizal grew up, he reflected on his state.
24:39He believes that education is not just an obligation,
24:43but an investment that will lead us to a brighter future.
24:47And we can only enjoy it
24:49when schools become a safe haven and a playground of the mind.
24:53Where young minds can explore and grow,
24:56rather than what he experienced,
24:58which can be likened to a dreaded torture chamber.
25:04When young Rizal returned to Calamba,
25:06his parents decided that he should stay there and later go to Manila.
25:11And during this time,
25:12his uncle, Don Jose Alberto,
25:14returned from Europe.
25:16What happened next is a scandalous story involving Rizal's family,
25:21which is so scandalous that it is like a modern teleserye.
25:25You know what, for fun, let's imagine it as a teleserye.
25:30Presented by Dreamscape Productions.
25:33In association with ABS-CBN.
28:48I'll try to be serious because what
28:50happened next to Rizal's mother is sad.
28:52And my throat hurts when I speak to Teodora BUT----
28:56Because he was accused of trying to poison
28:59his brother's wife,
29:01he was arrested and charged.
29:03And as a punishment, Teodora was made to walk 50 kilometers
29:07from Calamba to Santa Cruz.
29:10He was forbidden to use any vehicle.
29:14He said he had to suffer the shame
29:16even though the poisoning was not proven.
30:55Because of what was done to his mother,
30:57we can say that young Rizal became aware
31:00of how cruel the world is.
31:25Thank you very much for watching.
31:28This is where the video ends.
31:29I just added, just quickly.
31:31While I was researching about the Rizal boy,
31:33the toxic trait of Filipino families came to my mind .
31:36Parents compare their children to other children.
31:40Why don't you imitate this? The brain.
31:42Why don't you imitate that? Kindness, diligence.
31:46Or maybe someone also compared Rizal,
31:47why don't you imitate Rizal the child who is still a child is already great.
31:51But again, as I said, and in our study of Rizal,
31:55these admirable qualities are not inherent.
31:57They were nurtured and developed over time.
32:00His mother really spent time to teach Pepe.
32:04And so are his brothers and his uncles.
32:07So imagine if parents focused more on nurturing their children
32:11instead of constantly comparing them to others.
32:14Think about the incredible potential that could be unlocked
32:17if parents provided the support and encouragement necessary for their children
32:23to grow and develop their own unique strengths.
32:26When we nurture a child's innate potential,
32:30the possibilities are truly limitless.
32:33That's all, thank you very much again.
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FAQs about This YouTube Video

1. What are the key topics explored in this video about Jose Rizal?

This video explores the family, childhood, and early education of Jose Rizal, the national hero of the Philippines, highlighting his upbringing, parental influences, and the cultural context of his time.

2. How does this video emphasize the importance of viewing Rizal as a normal child rather than a superhero?

This video emphasizes the importance of viewing Rizal as a normal child rather than a superhero by showcasing his upbringing, parental influences, and the cultural context of his time, which shaped his character and achievements.

3. What role does nurturing and education play in shaping Rizal's character and achievements?

The video underscores the role of nurturing and education in shaping Rizal's character and achievements, highlighting the impact of his early education and parental influences.

4. What aspects of Rizal's early life are highlighted in this video?

This video highlights the family, childhood, and early education of Jose Rizal, shedding light on his upbringing and the cultural context of his time.

5. Why is it important to understand the cultural context of Rizal's time?

Understanding the cultural context of Rizal's time is essential as it provides insights into the influences and challenges he faced during his upbringing, shaping his character and future achievements.

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