💫 Summary
This video explores the 19th century Philippines and its impact on shaping Rizal's personality through changes in social, economic, and political landscapes, leading to his advocacy against oppression and inequality.
✨ Highlights📊 Transcript
The 19th century changes in the Philippines and the world contributed to shaping Rizal's perspective in life.
Rizal grew up amidst the Philippines' struggle for independence.
The shifting social, economic, and political landscape of the time also influenced Rizal.
The 19th century is considered the birth of modernity.
In the 19th century, Spain weakened due to economic issues, leading to the establishment of the Manila-Acapulco Trade and the decline of their mercantilist power.
Spain aimed to control and profit from trade in the Philippines after conquering it.
The Manila-Acapulco Trade, also known as the Galleon Trade, facilitated the exchange of various goods between Manila and Acapulco.
Spain's mercantilist power declined due to dependence on silver mines in South America and the War of Independence in Mexico.
The 19th century Philippines experienced economic progress and a rise in the middle class, which benefited Rizal's family.
The opening of the Suez Canal shortened travel time between Europe and the Philippines.
The Industrial Revolution had a significant impact on the Philippines, opening up world commerce.
The economy thrived, leading to the rise of a wealthy Filipino middle class.
Rizal's family, both on his father's and mother's side, became affluent landowners in Calamba.
The wealth of Rizal's family allowed them to live comfortably and provide education for their children, which was considered a status symbol during that time.
In 19th century Philippines, Spanish blood was highly valued, leading to racial discrimination and unequal access to education.
Spanish blood was highly valued during the Spanish era, leading to superiority for pure-blooded individuals.
Insulares born in the Philippines were lower in the racial caste system despite being 100% Spanish.
Wealthy families were able to send their children to study in prestigious schools and even in Spain and Europe for higher studies.
Racial discrimination and lack of respect from Spaniards led to unequal access to education for Filipinos.
The 19th-century education system in the Philippines was characterized by fear, obedience to the friars, and the belief in the inferiority of Filipinos, but reforms such as the Educational Decree of 1863 and the return of the Jesuits brought changes and opportunities for formal education.
Fear of God was emphasized over basic literacy.
Children were taught to be obedient to the friars instead of focusing on learning to count.
The Educational Decree of 1863 mandated the establishment of primary schools in every town in the Philippines.
The decree opened up educational opportunities for a wider segment of society, including the middle and lower classes.
The return of the Jesuits brought new ideas and methods to the educational system, transforming the Ateneo into a secondary school.
The Spanish introduced Christianity to the Philippines, but did not treat brown-skinned Filipinos equally, using religion to justify forced labor, cultural suppression, and conquest.
The Spaniards introduced Christianity to the Philippines, preaching love for all people, but did not treat brown-skinned Filipinos equally.
Religion was used to justify forced labor, cultural suppression, and conquest.
The Court of Justice during Rizal's time was corrupt and justice was only for the rich and Spanish, with brown Filipinos often treated unfairly.
The government enforced strict social and political hierarchies, denying Filipinos basic political rights and freedoms.
The Spanish colonial period in the Philippines was marked by racial prejudice, discrimination, and exploitation of resources and labor.
Officials were corrupt and focused on personal gain rather than fixing infrastructure or schools.
Rich Spaniards continued to get richer while poor Filipinos remained poor.
Rizal and other Filipinos exposed to liberal ideas were angered by these abuses and saw them as regressive and incompatible with progress.
It is worth pondering how different circumstances could have led Rizal down a different path.
00:00Hello, I'm Humi.
00:01In this video, we will talk about the changes that the Philippines
00:06and the world experienced in the 19th century,
00:08which directly affected the shaping of Rizal's personality. Have
00:18you ever asked yourself how you became who you are?
00:21Our personality is not only defined by genetics,
00:25but by a multitude of experiences and events
00:28that are interwoven throughout our lives.
00:31Not just one but many factors have shaped and continue to shape
00:37your personality.
00:38If you're a little confused,
00:39let's compare him to a jigsaw puzzle.
00:42Here, the pieces are the experiences and events that happened in your life,
00:47and when we put them together, it can form a picture.
00:52And that picture is you.
00:54There are factors that you can control,
00:56such as deciding whether to save, whether to take a trip to exercise,
01:00or whether to take a trip to study instead of soaking in social media.
01:03The other factors are beyond our control.
01:06Like the world we live in.
01:09Were you born rich? Is your family loving?
01:12Who are those around you? What events are happening in the world?
01:16where do you live What generation are you? Is
01:18your race beautiful? and much more.
01:21All those factors have something to do with how you became you.
01:25Let's go to Rizal.
01:27Rizal, he was born and grew up in the 19th century.
01:30And he grew up amidst the Philippines' struggle for independence
01:34and the shifting social, economic, and political landscape of the time.
01:39And those changes contributed
01:41to develop his perspective in life.
01:44To better understand how Rizal became Rizal, let's
01:47go back to what was happening in the 19th Century.
01:50What are these changes,
01:52in terms of economic, social, cultural, and political landscape,
01:56that shaped him, his family, the Philippines, and the World then?
02:03So 19th Century.
02:04The 19th Century is called by some the birth of modernity.
02:08Why? That's
02:09why he was called the birth of modernity
02:11because this era emphasized our break
02:15with traditional ways of life
02:16for the emergence of more modern or new ideas, attitudes, and institutions.
02:22Before, it was a monarchy. This 19th century, democracy.
02:27Before, feudalism. Now, capitalism.
02:30Before, passively accepting. Now, reform-minded.
02:35This period was also called part of the Age of Revolution.
02:39During this time, the Industrial Revolution was happening.
02:43There were new modes of production, transportation, and communication,
02:48resulting in a transformation of the economy
02:50as the world shifted
02:52from manual labor to machine-based production.
02:56This transformation of the economy and society
02:59resulted in new forms of work and leisure,
03:01as well as urbanization and the growth of cities.
03:05There were also political revolutions in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
03:11There is the American Revolution,
03:13and this French Revolution on your screen ,
03:15which were both heavily influenced by the Enlightenment,
03:19a philosophical movement that valued reason, rationality, and individualism.
03:24These political revolutions challenged the power of the monarchy
03:29and paved the way for new forms of governance
03:32based on individual rights, nationalism, and freedom. Let
03:37me clarify that these two political revolutions happened
03:40in the late 18th century.
03:42But they had a great influence, that this system was achievable,
03:46which opened the door for many more revolutions that happened in the 19th Century.
03:51The 19th Century encompasses a new way of thinking about the world
03:56and one's place in it,
03:57characterized by an increased focus on individualism, rationality,
04:02and the belief in progress
04:04and the ability to shape the world through
04:06scientific, technological, and social advancement.
04:10Also in the 19th century, while different places in Europe were getting stronger,
04:15such as Britain, thanks to the Industrial Revolution,
04:18and France, thanks to the French Revolution,
04:20the state of Spain was weakening.
04:23Why weaken?
04:24Let's look at their *economic condition during this period.
04:28And I think we can understand that better if we go back a few centuries.
04:32At a time when we were not yet conquered by the Spaniards.
04:38Even before we were conquered by the Spanish,
04:40we were trading with various neighboring countries.
04:44Like China, Japan, Thailand, Cambodia, India, Borneo, Spice Islands...
04:51When they conquered us, the
04:52Spanish crown saw the opportunity
04:55to control and make money from this trade.
04:58And that's not all.
04:59They made it a government monopoly.
05:02They closed all the ports of Manila in all countries and areas,
05:07except *Acapulco, Mexico.
05:10Why is it still open in Mexico?
05:12Because at that time, Mexico was part of the Spanish Empire.
05:15And Spain governs the Philippines from Mexico.
05:19Since both countries are colonies of Spain,
05:21Spain has exclusive control over the trade route and the goods that were traded.
05:25From that point, the Manila-Apaculco Trade was formed.
05:29Or maybe you are more familiar with one of its names,
05:31Galleon Trade.
05:32A galleon is the name given to a ship used in trade.
05:36Throughout centuries, Manila has been the center of commerce in the East.
05:40*They send something. On
05:43the way to Apaculco, there is Chinese silk, there is a tuba, there are fireworks, there are buffalo,
05:47different textiles, perfume, precious stones...
05:50Then on the way back, they bring different flora and fauna
05:53such as guava, avocado, papaya, pineapple , horse, cow….
05:56In short, Spain became a mercantilist superpower .
06:00But they did not reign forever.
06:17Spain was heavily dependent on the silver mines of its colonies
06:20in South America
06:21And they were running out.
06:23If they have nothing to get wealth from, they have nothing to earn.
06:27Also, silver production increased in America,
06:30and because there was *TOO much supply, the value of silver decreased.
06:34And above all, Mexico had a War of Independence.
06:38Mexico had a revolt in Spain,
06:40thus shifting the focus and priority of consumers away from the trade.
06:45So in the first decade of the 19th century, because the trade was no longer sustainable,
06:51the Galleon Trade was completely stopped .
06:54Since the Galleon Trade has stopped, the Philippines needs a commercial purpose.
06:59Thank goodness there are many economic opportunities
07:02due to the Industrial Revolution.
07:04Therefore, the Philippines was opened to world commerce.
07:08We transitioned as a supplier of raw materials
07:11to the industries of the West.
07:13We used our underutilized land resources
07:16and ventured into a cash crop agriculture.
07:29If before, we only planted for ourselves,
07:32by the 19th century, we were planting to supply other countries.
07:37 British, Dutch,
07:39and American trading companies invested capital here for the large-scale production
07:43of various products, such as tobacco and sugar.
07:47To facilitate transactions, foreign investors need
07:51help from people in the Philippines.
07:54This is where the Chinese, mestizos, and rich natives entered.
08:07The Chinese immigrants served as the middlemen between the provinces,
08:11where the products were grown,
08:13and the merchant houses of the mestizos in Manila.
08:16The wealthy natives became tenants or Inquilino in Spanish.
08:21This is what Inquilinos do.
08:23They leased the large haciendas to the friars.
08:26What they rented , they will partition and
08:29rent it cheaper to indigenous farmers.
08:32When the Suez Canal, an artificial sea-level waterway, was opened,
08:36the distance of travel between Europe and the Philippines was considerably shortened.
08:41If it used to take three months, now it's only forty days.
08:52(thanks to railways and steamships) It
09:04cannot be denied that the Industrial Revolution had a great impact on us.
09:10We are open to world commerce.
09:12Foreigners were engaged in manufacturing and agriculture.
09:16Our economy is dynamic and balanced.
09:19There was the rise of a new influential and wealthy Filipino middle class.
09:23People were encouraged to participate in the trade.
09:27And migration and increase in population were encouraged.
09:31In 1825, the total trade of the Philippines alone was 2.8 million pesos.
09:36But by 1875, it was 31.1 million.
09:42And that doubled in 1895.
09:46You may be wondering,
09:47what does this have to do with what I am saying to Rizal?
10:05Because the economy is good, the Inquilinos become rich.
10:09And among these wealthy Inquilinos is the Mercado family,
10:13on Rizal's father's side. Let
10:15's see how much they benefited from this economic progress.
10:19During the mid-eighteenth century, during the time of Domingo Lam-co,
10:23the Chinese ancestor of Rizal,
10:25the average holding of an Inquilino was only about three hectares.
10:30But by the 1890's,
10:32after Rizal's father had moved to the Calamba hacienda,
10:36 Rizal's family owned almost 400 hectares.
10:40The Mercado family became one of the most affluent families in Calamba.
10:46And not just on the father's side, Rizal's mother's side was also rich.
10:50Now what if they are rich?
10:53because they are rich,
10:54they can live comfortably and above all,
10:58they can educate their children.
11:04Education, whether we admit it or not, is a status symbol.
11:08During this time (up until mid-19th century),
11:09almost only the rich and those with Spanish blood could enjoy
11:13studying in a college or university.
11:16Those at the top of the hierarchy?
11:19So that we can better understand
11:20why education is such a luxury during this period (until mid-19th century), it is
11:23good to check the racial hierarchy in the 19th Century.
11:41At the very top, there are the Peninsulares
11:44or the pure-blooded Spaniards born on the Iberian Peninsula,
11:47like Spain.
11:49They are the officials and the friars,
11:51and they alone have the power and authority to rule the Philippines.
11:56Below the Peninsulares, there are the Insulares or the Creoles.
12:00Insulares are also just like Peninsulares.
12:03100% Spanish blood.
12:06The only difference is, the Insulares were not born in Spain,
12:10but in the Philippines.
12:12So if your father and mother are 100% pure-blooded Spaniards,
12:15but you were born here,
12:17you cannot be called a Peninsulares.
12:20Below the Insulares, there are the Mestizos.
12:23When we say Mestizo or Tisoy, it means you are mixed.
12:28Let's say your father is a native Filipino
12:30but your mother is a Spaniard or Chinese.
12:34At the bottom of the hierarchy, there are the Native Filipinos and the Indians.
12:38Because we are at the bottom, the Spaniards look down on us.
12:42(derogatory term used by Spanish officials; it has lost its original meaning on their hands)
13:03If you notice, Spanish blood was very important during the Spanish era.
13:08Highly valued.
13:09For the eyes of Spanish officials,
13:11when you are pure-blooded, you are superior to any Filipino.
13:16And as Spanish blood disappeared,
13:18so did all the privileges that came with it.
13:20If we look closely, the Insulares are still 100% Spanish.
13:25But just because they were born in the Philippines,
13:28they are lower in the racial caste system.
13:31According to the Peninsulares,
13:32the Philippines is just a dumping ground for misfits and dregs of society,
13:38and to be born in such a place lowered their racial status.
13:42Even the most stupid Spaniard, as long as a Spaniard, will
13:46still look down on him.
13:47Because even if you have a little drop of Indio blood,
13:50in the eyes of the Spaniards,
13:52you will not be their equal.
13:54Because the Spaniards have little regard for the Filipinos, they do
13:58not give them even the slightest respect as a person.
14:01And this includes access to education.
14:04They associated us with ideas of backwardness, primitiveness,
14:08and inferiority.
14:10Because they are not given the opportunity,
14:12(likely) those at the bottom of the hierarchy cannot easily study in college.
14:16But if Rizal's family is as rich as you , this will not be a problem for you.
14:22Wealthy families during this period (latter half of 19th century)
14:23were able to send their children to study in prestigious schools.
14:27The female children of the Rizal family, they studied at La Concordia.
14:31Their son, Paciano, at Colegio San de Jose.
14:34The relative prosperity of the period has enabled them (wealthy Filipino families)
14:38to send their other sons to Spain and Europe for higher studies.
14:42Rizal's family was not the only one who enjoyed this kind of education,
14:45if not many wealthy Filipinos who had
14:48their children study in Madrid and Barcelona.
14:52In college, they were exposed to secular and liberal ideas.
14:56That, thanks to revolutions like the French Revolution,
15:00a world where we will not be oppressed by these bastards is achievable.
15:11(It may be more accurate to say that they "sought reforms.")
15:16Ilustrado means erudite, learned, or enlightened one.
15:20As an illustration, let's say that
15:23they are envious of the democracy that other countries enjoy,
15:26and I hope the Philippines enjoys the same.
15:30Hopefully, we are not oppressed.
15:33That we would have been treated as human beings.
15:37And one of their goals is for the Spaniards to treat us as equivalent.
15:44To be fair, it is easy to say that the nationalist movement
15:47in the Philippines emerged because of the Ilustrados.
15:50But there is an even bigger factor that caused nationalism to be stimulated
15:54for the natives in the Philippines. Let
16:23's examine these educational reforms that happened
16:25in the 19th Century.
16:28Because of the Industrial Revolution,
16:30the educational system of the Philippines was forced to change. It is
16:33no longer possible to teach only prayer,
16:35because the economy needs skilled labor.
16:38The schools, before the Industrial Revolution affected us,
16:42were actually controlled by the friars.
16:44And that environment can be summed up in three words:
16:48inadequate, suppressive, and controlled.
16:51Fear of God is more effective than basic literacy.
16:55Obedience to the friars instead of the child learning to count.
16:59Children in the schools were taught to instill in their minds that
17:03they were inferior to others and were only capable of doing manual work.
17:08Clearly, this educational system will no longer
17:11work to keep up with the modernizing world.
17:15The Educational Decree of 1863.
17:18This is an attempt by the Spanish Colonial government
17:20to address the lack of formal education among Filipinos.
17:24In this decree, it is
17:25mandated that every town in the Philippines must build
17:29at least one primary school for boys and girls.
17:33which was to be supported by municipal funds and supervised
17:36by the local government.
17:38This decree marked the beginning of (wider) formal education in the Philippines
17:42and opened up educational opportunities to a wider segment of society,
17:47including the middle and lower classes.
17:49Primary education has become free and open to Filipinos.
17:54This is significant,
17:55because learning how to read, write, and count is no longer just
18:00for the wealthy and elite.
18:01Although, it's not perfect.
18:03It lacked resources and qualified teachers.
18:06There are also discriminations that happen that the natives experience.
18:11And since Spaniards are in charge of education,
18:14it is still heavily influenced by Catholicism and Spanish Culture.
18:18So the development of the national identity of Filipinos is hindered.
18:23But this is still an important step.
18:25Because of this, we learned to understand the Spanish language,
18:29and became the foundation for the development of
18:31formal education and the next educational reforms.
18:35Third, the return of the Jesuits was a significant event
18:38that influenced the educational system in the Philippines.
18:42When the Jesuits returned to the Philippines ,
18:45they brought new ideas and methods to the educational system of the Philippines.
18:51In 1865, the Ateneo, which was then handled by the Jesuits,
18:55transformed into a secondary school.
18:58And what they teach is beyond the official requirements. The student is in
19:01college even if he is still in high school .
19:17And because of secondary schools like Ateneo,
19:20the ideas of nationalism became awake,
19:23even among Filipinos who did not study in Europe.
19:58According to a letter from Rizal to Blumentritt,
20:15these educational reforms helped give access to
20:19other people to have the opportunity
20:22to study, read, and learn.
20:25In fact, in 1866 the proportion of literate people
20:30in the Philippines was even greater than in Spain.
20:32The proportion of Filipino children attending school was also above average
20:37in European standards.
21:06Why did Filipinos cry like that during Rizal's time?
21:09That we need democracy.
21:12To understand better, maybe we need to go back to the 16th Century.
21:17When the Spaniards introduced Christianity to us .
21:21When the Spaniards introduced us to Christianity,
21:23they said that we should love all people,
21:27regardless of color, wealth, or characteristics,
21:30because we are all created by God.
21:34There is a problem.
21:35They forgot to say that the word "man" does not include us.
21:40The Spanish colonial authorities did not treat brown-skinned Filipinos equally.
21:44I remembered this hypocrisy of the famous quote in George Orwell's book,
21:53Because they forgot to say that,
21:55or in fact they really forgot,
21:58almost all Filipinos in Luzon became Christians.
22:01And throughout the next three centuries, they used religion
22:05to justify everything they were doing wrong.
22:08Forced labor?
22:09For God.
22:10Cultural Suppression?
22:12For God.
22:13Conquest and Violence?
22:15For God.
22:23During Rizal's time, the Court of Justice was notoriously corrupt. It
22:27should probably be called "Court of Injustice."
22:37Justice is only for the rich. It
22:39seems that the rich are wrong.
22:41Justice, only for the Spanish.
22:44Because at that time brown Filipinos were
22:46often treated unfairly and justice was costly, partial, and slow.
22:52If you're a poor Filipino,
22:54you really can't afford the exorbitant litigation costs.
22:59If you're a rich white person, you win. The
23:02Filipino is the one who is guilty and will be imprisoned.
23:05According to John Foreman,
23:44the judicial procedure is already slow,
23:46making it easy for justice to be delayed or denied, it is
23:49easy to find loopholes.
24:25You don't have a choice as to who will govern your area,
24:28because you don't have the right to vote.
24:31The government enforced strict social and political hierarchies,
24:35denying Filipinos basic political rights and freedoms.
24:39This led to limited participation in the government,
24:42and the responsibilities of the natives were often not adequately compensated,
24:47(likely) leading to poor job performance.
24:49If the officials are the left hand of the Spanish crown,
24:52the right hand is for the church.
25:03They can go to jail, and even if the friars do something wrong,
25:07because they are under the law,
25:09they are still innocent.
25:21The imposition of heavy taxes and levies on the local population resulted in
25:25widespread poverty and deprivation.
25:28In addition, the officials are corrupt,
25:32they are collecting money, not to fix the broken bridge
25:36or fix the schools, but for their own pockets.
25:49Let's summarize what I said.
25:51The Spanish colonial period in the Philippines
25:54was marked by racial prejudice or racism, discrimination, almost no political rights, the
25:59local population was being financed, the church was manipulating the country
26:04and the Spanish government thought of us as
26:06a money making machine so it fo- they focus on exploiting the
26:10country's resources and labor.
26:12The rich Spaniards keep getting richer ,
26:16and the poor Filipinos keep getting poorer.
26:21If this is how you see the unjust things being done
26:25in your country and your fellow Filipinos, wouldn't you be angry?
26:29Because that's the anger that Rizal,
26:32the Ilustrados, and the Filipinos who were exposed to
26:35liberal ideas felt when they saw these abuses.
26:38They think
26:40that (Spanish officials and its practices) are regressive, incompatible, childish, backward,
26:44and the reason why the Philippines is not developing.
26:49Rizal said in one of his letters,
27:15Earlier we talked about the revolutions that happened.
28:23And that's what happened in the 19th Century Philippines as Rizal's context,
28:27in terms of *economic, social, cultural, and political landscape.
28:31If Rizal were born today, would he still be the Rizal we know?
28:36Hard to say.
28:37If he was born on a different time period,
28:40the experiences and ideas he would get would not be different,
28:43that would lead him down to a different path.
28:46But you can also argue that something has changed?
28:48Doesn't oppression and
28:50inequality still continue and isn't Rizal passionate about advocating the
28:54rights of Filipinos.
28:56So if he was born today, he might still be the Rizal we consider a hero.
29:01Nevertheless, it is worth pondering how different circumstances, such as being born into a less
29:06privileged family or not having access to like-minded
29:09individuals, would have influenced his life's trajectory.
29:13Now, only one thing is clear,
29:15our personality is not only defined by genetics,
29:18but by a multitude of experiences and events that are interwoven throughout our lives.
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FAQs about This YouTube Video

1. How did the 19th century Philippines shape Rizal's personality?

The 19th century Philippines played a significant role in shaping Rizal's personality through changes in social, economic, and political landscapes. These changes led to his advocacy against oppression and inequality, which became a central theme in his works.

2. What impact did the social, economic, and political changes in 19th century Philippines have on Rizal?

The social, economic, and political changes in 19th century Philippines had a profound impact on Rizal, influencing his views on oppression and inequality. These changes molded his personality and sparked his advocacy for social justice and reform.

3. How did the 19th century Philippines contribute to Rizal's advocacy against oppression and inequality?

The 19th century Philippines contributed to Rizal's advocacy against oppression and inequality by creating an environment marked by social, economic, and political upheavals. These changes fueled Rizal's passion for reform and his commitment to addressing the issues of oppression and inequality.

4. What role did the 19th century Philippines play in Rizal's development as a reformist?

The 19th century Philippines played a crucial role in Rizal's development as a reformist by exposing him to the injustices and disparities prevalent in society. This exposure led to his deep-seated commitment to advocating for social change and addressing the systemic issues of oppression and inequality.

5. How did the changes in the social, economic, and political landscapes of the 19th century Philippines influence Rizal's beliefs?

The changes in the social, economic, and political landscapes of the 19th century Philippines deeply influenced Rizal's beliefs, particularly in relation to the need for social justice and equity. These changes propelled Rizal towards actively opposing oppression and advocating for meaningful societal reform.

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