💫 Summary
The video explores various attempts at creating perpetual motion machines, highlighting their limitations and the laws of physics that make them impossible. It features examples such as the Beverly Clock and Crooks' Radiometer, showcasing how they rely on external forces rather than being true perpetual motion machines. The video emphasizes that true perpetual motion machines will never exist due to the conservation of energy.
✨ Highlights📊 Transcript
The Beverly Clock, created by Arthur Beverly, has been running continuously for 158 years, making it one of the world's longest running science experiments.
Arthur Beverly was a skilled lensmaker and watchmaker.
The clock was wound only once in 1864 and has been running ever since.
Although the clock has stopped at times, it has been running for an impressive amount of time.
The Beverly Clock is an impressive atmospheric clock that requires changes in temperature to function, making it not a true perpetual motion machine.
Clock stops when temperature fluctuates.
Clock needs to be manually adjusted after losing time.
Clock requires changes in temperature to power itself, so it would not function in a vacuum.
Sir William Crooks accidentally discovered the Crook's Radiometer while trying to get accurate measurements of weight in a partial vacuum.
This section discusses two attempts at perpetual motion machines - the Crookes radiometer and William Congreve's sponge-powered design.
The Crookes radiometer uses curved veins to create a temperature difference and rotate indefinitely, but it still requires external forces to operate.
William Congreve's design combines elements from previously disproven perpetual motion machines, featuring a conveyor belt with sponges and a belt of heavy weight to squeeze the water out of the sponges. However, the design is overly complicated and unlikely to achieve perpetual motion.
The video discusses the Oxford Electric Bell and a simple wooden frame machine that falsely claims to be perpetual motion.
The Oxford Electric Bell is now kept behind two layers of glass to make it virtually inaudible.
The wooden frame machine, created by a YouTuber, uses strings or pistons connected to the bottom of the plank to create the rocking motion.
Despite being an obvious hoax, many people believed the wooden frame machine was real.
True perpetual motion machines are impossible due to the laws of conservation of energy.
00:00for thousands of years people have
00:01attempted to create perpetual motion
00:03machines without success the reason for
00:05this lack of success is of course that
00:06such a device would violate those pesky
00:09laws of physics while early attempts and
00:11perpetual motion were for the sake of
00:13curiosity and invention as well as to
00:15create interesting novelties later
00:17attempts were more pragmatic in nature
00:20if a device could be built that operated
00:22with greater than 100 efficiency it
00:24would be a free source of renewable
00:26energy again this almost certainly isn't
00:29possible and the quest for perpetual
00:31motion is like the alchemic quest for
00:34the philosopher's stone despite all
00:37science pointing to it being an
00:38impossibility the incredible magnitude
00:40of such a potential discovery is too
00:42much for many curious minded individuals
00:45to resist today we're going to be
00:46looking at some of the most incredible
00:48attempts a perpetual motion
01:03the beverly clock resides within the
01:05department of physics at the university
01:06of otago in new zealand the clock was
01:08created by arthur beverly a man with
01:11very humble upbringings bath grew up on
01:12a farm in scotland and at the age of 14
01:14he became an apprentice watchmaker he
01:16was quite skilled as a lensmaker and he
01:18began working with scientists after he
01:20made a set of microscope lenses for the
01:21university of aberdeen at the age of 30
01:24arthur moved to australia during the
01:25victorian gold rush his efforts in the
01:27gold fields must have not been
01:28successful because he quickly went back
01:30to watchmaking after a few more years he
01:33moved on to new zealand and opened his
01:35own watchmaking business in 1858 just
01:37six years later at the age of 42 arthur
01:39would complete work on the beverly clock
01:40once the mechanical clock was finished
01:42arthur wound it that day in 1864 was the
01:45only time it was ever wound and it is
01:47still running to this day making it one
01:49of the world's longest running science
01:51experiments so how could a mechanical
01:53clock run continuously for 158 years
01:56without being manually wound well it
01:59actually hasn't though this clock is
02:01still running there have been times when
02:03it has stopped while the beverly clock
02:05can theoretically run forever without
02:07being wound it technically has an
02:09external power source temperature the
02:11clock is not a closed system and
02:12therefore not a true perpetual motion
02:15machine but it's certainly the closest
02:17that we've ever got to one the clock
02:18works because there is an air tight box
02:20inside it that expands and contracts
02:22throughout the day based on changes in
02:24temperature this pushes on a diaphragm
02:26that lifts a one pound weight that winds
02:27the clock as it falls as long as it's
02:29raised one inch each day the clock will
02:31continue to run all it takes to raise
02:33the weight that one inch is a change in
02:34temperature of 6 degrees over the course
02:36of the day that's a very small change in
02:38temperature from the coldest point of
02:40the day to the hottest but sometimes it
02:41just doesn't happen and the clock stops
02:43whenever the temperature fluctuates more
02:45it will begin working again without
02:46needing to be manually wound but it will
02:48still have lost time and will need to be
02:50adjusted the beverly clock is a
02:51brilliant design and it was the first
02:53ever atmospheric clock but it runs at
02:55less than 100 efficiency and thus of
02:58course it's not a true perpetual motion
03:00machine despite being an incredibly
03:02impressive feat of design and because
03:04the clock is not a closed system and
03:06requires changes in temperature to power
03:07itself it quite literally would not
03:10function in a vacuum
03:17the previous attempt at perpetual motion
03:19couldn't work inside a vacuum so here's
03:21a device that is a vacuum or at least a
03:23partial vacuum the device was created by
03:26british chemist and physicist sir
03:27william crooks in 1873. he was a pioneer
03:30of vacuum tube technology so it's no
03:32wonder that he would be the one to
03:33create a vacuum sealed perpetual motion
03:35machine the crook's radiometer looks a
03:37bit like a horizontal windmill trapped
03:39inside a light bulb despite the glass
03:40bowl being airtight and near a vacuum
03:43the two toned panels inside undergo a
03:45continuous rotation unlike most attempts
03:47of perpetual motion which are deliberate
03:49efforts often consuming the creator's
03:51entire life crooks discovery was
03:54entirely an accident one day crooks was
03:56trying to get extremely accurate
03:58measurements of weight on small samples
03:59for his chemistry work so he wanted to
04:01weigh them inside a partial vacuum to
04:03reduce any interference on the
04:05measurements caused by air currents
04:07while doing this he noticed that the
04:08readings would change whenever sunlight
04:10shone directly on the balance his
04:12radiometer was built as an experiment to
04:14test the phenomena that he had observed
04:16there were several theories as to why
04:18the veins would rotate with crook's
04:20original guess being incorrect it took
04:22six years before scientists finally
04:24arrived at the correct answer the veins
04:25each featured one black side and one
04:27silver side all oriented in the same
04:29direction because darker colors absorb
04:31more heat than lighter ones the black
04:33sides of the veins would heat up when
04:35exposed to light the air molecules
04:36inside the bulb that came into contact
04:38with the hotter black side will also
04:40heat up and become agitated creating a
04:42force against the veins because it was a
04:44near vacuum there were enough air
04:46molecules to generate the force required
04:48to start the contraption spinning but
04:49not enough for air resistance to
04:51overcome the force put upon the veins
04:53the sweet spot where there is neither
04:55too little nor too much air to prevent
04:57the spinning motion is fairly precise
04:59while the initial crook's radiometer was
05:01able to work by using veins with one
05:03light side and one dark side this was
05:05proven to not be necessary in 2009
05:07researchers at the university of texas
05:08were able to replicate the effect using
05:10veins that were all black instead of
05:12relying on one color to make one side
05:14hotter than the other it utilized curved
05:16veins whereas previous efforts had all
05:18used flat ones because of the curvature
05:20of the structures the convex side of the
05:21veins would heat up more than the
05:23concave side thus creating the same
05:24effect the crook's radiometer has the
05:26ability to continue rotating forever
05:28without an internal power source but
05:30once again it is not a closed system and
05:32it requires external forces for its
05:34continued operation many light mills
05:36have been built since crix's original
05:38though they serve little purpose outside
05:40classroom demonstrations or as a novelty
05:42but if this is the sort of novelty that
05:43appeals to you can find them on amazon
05:45for around thirty dollars yay
05:54what makes this entry so incredible is
05:57less the idea itself and more that a
06:00respected scientist and inventor was
06:02absolutely convinced that this could
06:04work so william congress was an inventor
06:06of some renown enough renown to be
06:08knighted apparently among his inventions
06:10were a color printing press and a new
06:12form of steam engine most notable of his
06:14inventions was a concrete rocket an
06:16early form of rocket artillery for
06:17military use for an inventor of such
06:19ability one would think he would have
06:20better things to do than focus on the
06:23fool's errands that his perpetual motion
06:24but he didn't at least at the end of his
06:27life while recovering from an illness
06:28congregate drew up plans for a
06:30sponge-powered perpetual motion design
06:32the most impressive thing about his
06:33design is that it took design elements
06:35from already disproven perpetual motion
06:37machines and combined them into
06:39one big soggy mess his machine would
06:42combine the properties of an unbalanced
06:44wheel a plank and chain and the
06:46capillary effect individually none of
06:48these ideas create a perpetual motion
06:50but maybe just maybe by combining a
06:52bunch of insufficient ideas it would
06:54create something truly remarkable the
06:56proposed machine featured a conveyor
06:58belt covered in sponges on the outside
07:00of the sponges was another belt of heavy
07:03weight the sponges would travel under
07:04the bottom of the machine through the
07:06water reservoir before being lifted onto
07:08the conveyor once on the conveyor the
07:10weights would squeeze the water out of
07:11the sponges to make them lighter at the
07:13top of the conveyor a hose supplying
07:15water through capillary effect would
07:17soak the sponges again making them heavy
07:19enough to drag the rest of the belt down
07:21now if that sounds confusing and
07:22needlessly complicated well it
07:24absolutely is congreve never built the
07:27machine himself nor did anyone else as
07:28far as is known anyone with the ability
07:31to construct such a machine should
07:32immediately understand that it's not
07:34going to work and they're relying on
07:35already disproven unfailed methods of
07:38creating perpetual motion since congreve
07:40designed this while recovering from
07:41being sick it would be nice to just
07:43chalk it up to being some sort of fever
07:45dream but no he actually defended the
07:48idea at his own expense congress
07:49published a pamphlet to defend the
07:51principles behind the machine and put
07:53forward his belief that it would
07:54absolutely work perhaps this was just
07:56done to try and save face but it is
07:58truly incredible that such an
07:59accomplished scientist and inventor
08:01would not only design but then defend
08:03such a ridiculous contraption
08:11the oxford electric bell also known as
08:13the clarendon dry pile is not what most
08:16people would think of when they think of
08:17perpetual motion devices the reason is
08:19that it's operated by a battery so
08:22why are we talking about it in today's
08:24video because the bell has been ringing
08:26almost non-stop for the last 182 years
08:30the bell was constructed by instrument
08:31makers watkins and hill it's believed to
08:33have been constructed in 1825 but
08:35there's no way to know for sure what is
08:37known is that it was purchased in 1840
08:38by clergyman and professor of physics
08:40reverend robert walker and it has been
08:43on display at oxford university in
08:44england since then it's located adjacent
08:46to the clarendon laboratory hence the
08:48alternate name the term dry pile comes
08:51from the type of battery used it is the
08:53predecessor to the modern tri-cell
08:55battery and it is constructed by
08:56assembling a pile of discs of different
08:59alternating materials to create
09:01electrical charges the oxford electric
09:03bell has two dry piles each above a bell
09:06to which it is connected between the two
09:08bells is a four millimeter metal sphere
09:11that acts as the clapper when the metal
09:13sphere comes into contact with one of
09:15the bells it receives a tiny
09:16electrostatic charge that repels it
09:19sending it to the other bell this
09:20process has been repeated over 10
09:22billion times since it's been on display
09:24the apparatus has operated nearly
09:26continuously with only small occasional
09:28periods of interruption resulting from
09:30exceptionally high humidity it may not
09:32be perpetual but how exactly has the
09:34guinness world record holder for most
09:35durable battery been able to remain
09:37fully functional for nearly two
09:38centuries and how much longer will the
09:40bells continue to ring the answer to
09:42both of these questions is we have
09:44absolutely no idea there are no
09:46schematics or notes to indicate exactly
09:48what the battery is made out of all we
09:50have is the device itself the two dry
09:52piles are coated in a layer of molten
09:54sulfur to protect from atmospheric
09:56disturbances this leaves them looking
09:57more like giant wax candles than
09:59batteries and it makes it impossible to
10:01see the inner workings there is
10:03speculation as to what materials the
10:05battery is made out of based on other
10:06contemporary research however there are
10:08no other existing batteries known to
10:10have run for nearly so long so it would
10:12stand to reason that these batteries had
10:14something different about them if you're
10:15wondering why researchers don't just
10:16disassemble the batteries to see what
10:18they're made out of well that would ruin
10:20the world's longest running experiment
10:21oxford university has waited 182 years
10:23for the bells to stop ringing so surely
10:26they can wait a little bit longer or
10:28maybe a few centuries longer we
10:30genuinely don't have any idea on the
10:31bright side the oxford electric bell is
10:33now kept behind two layers of glass so
10:35the ringing is virtually inaudible
10:36rather than being a constant source of
10:38insanity for oxford students of physics
10:48how incredible is this device created in
10:502016 by youtuber the project one
10:53incredible enough to get nearly four
10:55million views the machine is incredibly
10:57simple it features a simple wooden frame
10:59placed on top of a wooden plank the
11:01plank is then balanced on a wooden dowel
11:04and two balls are placed inside the
11:06apparatus you can then watch the seesaw
11:08rock back and forth as the balls roll
11:10from one end of the chamber to the other
11:12according to the video it works because
11:14the center of a mass of the system is
11:16continually changing each ball pushes
11:18the opposite side of the board causing
11:21the oscillation this is of course a
11:23complete and total fabrication how it
11:25actually works is by either strings or
11:28more likely pistons connected to the
11:30bottom of the plank that can actually be
11:32seen in the video itself if someone is
11:33looking carefully the seesaw rocks in
11:35perfect rhythm regardless of the actual
11:37position of the balls incredibly despite
11:40being an obvious hoax many people who
11:42saw the video believed it was a real
11:43machine quite possibly millions of
11:45people did the appeal of what it being
11:47real could mean is too much for our
11:50rational brains to overcome even when
11:52the true explanation
11:54is right in front of our eyes the simple
11:56fact is that true perpetual motion
11:58machines will never exist devices like
12:00the beverly clark and the crooks
12:01radiometer show that it is possible to
12:04build a machine that can harness outside
12:05forces to power itself but those forces
12:08still need to exist there will never be
12:11a closed system device that can run at
12:14or greater than 100 efficiency because
12:17it violates the laws of the conservation
12:19of energy the united states government
12:21is so sure of this as they should be
12:22that the u.s patent office no longer
12:24accepts patent submissions for perpetual
12:26motion machines if you'd like to learn
12:27more about that you can find the 1940
12:29short something for nothing featuring
12:31cartoonist and inventor of wacky and
12:33impractical devices rube goldberg
12:35discussing patents and the impossibility
12:37of perpetual motion devices and also
12:39discussing how great and limitless
12:41fossil fuel is because somebody had to
12:43pay to get that video made we suppose
12:46and that somebody was probably the
12:48automotive industry and this video was
12:49brought to you by the it wasn't it
12:51wasn't but i do hope you enjoyed it
12:53thank you so much for watching and i'll
12:54see you next time
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FAQs about This YouTube Video

1. What is the concept of perpetual motion machines?

The concept of perpetual motion machines revolves around the idea of creating a machine that can operate indefinitely without the need for additional energy input. However, this concept goes against the laws of physics, particularly the conservation of energy.

2. Can perpetual motion machines truly exist?

No, true perpetual motion machines cannot exist due to the fundamental principle of the conservation of energy. This principle states that energy cannot be created or destroyed, and therefore, a perpetual motion machine would violate this law.

3. What are some examples of attempted perpetual motion machines?

Several examples of attempted perpetual motion machines include the Beverly Clock and Crooks' Radiometer. These machines, despite their intriguing designs, rely on external forces and do not achieve true perpetual motion due to the limitations imposed by the laws of physics.

4. How do perpetual motion machines relate to the laws of physics?

Perpetual motion machines highlight the limitations imposed by the laws of physics, particularly the conservation of energy. These machines serve as examples of the impossibility of achieving true perpetual motion, showcasing the fundamental principles that govern our universe.

5. Why is the idea of perpetual motion machines important to understand?

Understanding the concept of perpetual motion machines is important as it allows us to grasp the fundamental laws of physics, such as the conservation of energy. It serves as a reminder of the limitations that these laws impose on technological advancements and inspires innovation within the boundaries of scientific principles.

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